The Routledge International Handbook of Teacher and School Development

The International Handbook of Teacher and School Development brings together a collection of research and evidence-based authoritative writings which focus on international teacher and school development. Drawing on research from eighteen countries across seven continents, the forty chapters are grouped into ten themes which represent key aspects of teacher and school development:

  • Issues of Professionalism and Performativity
  • What Being an Effective Teacher Really Means
  • Reason and Emotion in Teaching
  • Schools in Different Circumstances
  • Student Voices in a Global Context
  • Professional Learning and Development
  • Innovative Pedagogies
  • School Effectiveness and Improvement
  • Successful Schools, Successful Leader
  • Professional Communities: their practices, problems & possibilities

Each theme expertly adds to the existing knowledge base about teacher and school development internationally. They are individually important in shaping and understanding an appreciation of the underlying conditions which influence teachers and schools, both positively and negatively, and the possibilities for their further development.

This essential handbook will be of interest to teacher educators, researchers in the field of teacher education and policy makers.

Teaching and Training in Post-compulsory Education

What knowledge, skills & abilities do Post-Compulsory teachers need? What kind of activities will help them develop these? What critical/reflective apparatus do teachers need which will help them to continue their development beyond the completion of a course of training? This is a textbook primarily for use on the Certificate in Education, Post-Compulsory, but it will be useful for other Post-Compulsory training courses such as the City & Guilds Further & Adult Education Teachers’ Certificate, as well as for teachers in schools, 6th Forms, FE or tertiary colleges, HE institutions & trainers in industry & commerce, both in the private & public sectors. Special features include: * Practical learning tasks focused on real teaching contexts * Tasks are complemented by analytical & reflective approaches * Strong author team with a wealth of collective experience in post-compulsory education Chapters focus on the learning processes such teachers will undergo, as well as on key areas of concern to them such as learning, teaching, resources, assessment & course planning. In addition, there is a consideration of the growth of vocationalism in education, as well as a valuable chronology of Post-Compulsory Education. Each chapter is sub-divided into self-contained sections concentrating on the key issues of a topic with frequent practical exercises which focus on the context the teacher works in. These exercises are supported by theory, reading, analysis, information, discussion or examples of student work where appropriate. Contents: Introduction – What is post-compulsory education? – The post-compulsory teacher: learning & developing – Student learning in post-compulsory education – Teaching & the management of learning – Teaching & learning resources – Assessment – Exploring the curriculum – Course design, development & evaluation – Developments in post-compulsory education – Bibliography – Index.


Foreign Language Teacher Education

This is a collection of essays dealing with ESL/EFL/FL teacher education by experienced ESL/EFL/FL teacher educators and student teachers of different cultural backgrounds, and from different countries. The essays cover topics that focus both on the teacher as learner and the learner as teacher. This book recognizes that the language classroom has a particular culture of its own while being part of a broader school culture. As a result, the multi-foci nature of the chapters serve to present the varied and diverse language education needs, programs, and approaches. Contents: The National Foreign Languages: Can we Get from Here to There?, Sophie Jeffries; FLES Teacher Preparation: Competencies, Content and Complexities, Gladys C. Lipton; Journaling: A Path to Reflective Teacher Development, Aleiline J. Moeller; Alternative Assessment in Foreign Second Language: What do we in Foreign Language Know?, Charles R. Hancock; Where are the African American Foreign Language Teachers?, Mark English; Foreign Language Teacher Education in a Professional Development School, Alan Garfinkel and Carol Sosa; Portfolio Design and the Decision Making Process and in Teacher Education, JoAnn Hammadou; Peer Evaluation in In-Service Teacher Education, Jeannette Morris; Professional Development for Japanese Teachers, Yoshiko Saito; Successful Listening Comprehension Strategies: Implications for Foreign Language Teaching and Teacher Training, Rhonda Chipman-Johnson; Emergent L2 Writing in the French Immersion Classroom: Implications for Teacher Education of Where are the Holes in Whole Language?, Stephen Carey and Rishma Dunlop; Multimedia and Foreign Language Teacher: A Humananistic Perspective, Josef Hellebrandt; Culture: How do Teachers Teach it?, Zena Moore.


FTCE – The Best Teachers’ Test Prep for Florida Teacher Certification

Be prepared. Get certified. Then get ready to teach! REA’s excellent FTCE study guide helps you master the FTCE exam so you will be one step closer to teaching in a Florida classroom of your own.

This brand new, fully revised 3rd edition of REA’s FTCE (Florida Teacher Certification Exam) test prep contains an in-depth review and 2 full-length practice exams with thoroughly detailed answers. The comprehensive FTCE review contains focused coverage of all relevant exam topics and Florida’s 14 competencies including key pedagogical concepts, theories, and relevant laws. Follow up your study with REA’s powerhouse test-taking strategies that get you ready for this all-important exam. Fully indexed for easy topic searches. Also contains a complete directory of all Florida public school districts.

– Written by 7 leading Florida-based specialists with doctorates in teacher education.
– Comprehensive reviews of all of Florida’s 14 state competencies
– Features every type of question, every subject area, and every skill that can be expected on the actual FTCE.
– Each practice exam question is fully explained in easy-to-follow, step-by-step detail.
– Adaptable study schedule that fits your lifestyle.
– Fully compliant with federal No Child Left Behind guidelines.
– Fully indexed for quick and speedy topic searches.
– Bonus Appendix of all Florida public school districts


CHAPTER 1: Passing the FTCE
– About this Book
– About the Test
– How to Use this Book
– Format of the FTCE
– Computer-Based Testing
– About the Review Sections
– Scoring the FTCE
– Studying for the FTCE
– Test-Taking Tips
– The Day of the Test
– FTCE Study Schedule
CHAPTER 2: Competency 1: Assessment
– Definition of Competency
– Purposes of Assessment
– Teacher-Made (Classroom) Tests
– Authentic Assessments
– Standardized Testing
– Performance-Based Assessment
– Creating Classroom (Teacher-Made) Tests
– Principles of Test Construction
– Self-Directed Learning and Assessment
– Test Blueprints
– Objectives
– Test Items
– Constructing Test Questions
– Scoring the Test
– Evaluating and Revising Tests
– Preparation for Testing
– Test Administration
– Formative Feedback
– Summary
– References
CHAPTER 3: Competency 2: Communication
– Definition of Competency
– Principles of Verbal Communication
– Voice
– Nonverbal Communication
– Expectations of Students and Communication
– Media Communication
– Effective Use of Language
– Relationship Between Teachers and Students
– Connected Discourse
– Marker Expressions
– Task Attraction and Challenge
– Scrambled Discourse, Vagueness, and Question Overload
– Providing Clear Feedback to Students
– Make Specific Statements about Students’ Responses
– Methods of Correcting Students’ Errors
– Parent-Teacher Communication
– References
CHAPTER 4: Competency 3: Continuous Improvement
– Definition of Competency
– Effective Professional Development
– Professional Development Delivery Methods
– Recommended Professional Development Topics
– Barriers to Professional Development
– References
CHAPTER 5: Competency 4: Critical Thinking
– Definition of Competency
– Metacognition
– Comparison/Contrast
– Questioning
– The Six Levels of Taxonomy
– References
CHAPTER 6: Competency 5: Diversity
– Definition of Competency
– Diversity
– Factors Affecting Learning Style
– Nature and Nurture
– References
CHAPTER 7: Competency 6: Ethics
– Definition of Competency
– What is Ethics?
– Ethics and the Education Profession
– The Code of Ethics of the Education Profession in Florida
– The Principles of Professional Conduct of the Education Profession in Florida
– References
CHAPTER 8: Competency 7: Human Development and Learning
– Definition of Competency
– Physical, Social, and Academic Development
– Motivational Strategies
– Accommodating Different Learning Needs, Developmental Levels, and Experiential
– Backgrounds
– Applying Learning Theories in the Classroom
– Students with Disabilities
– Intervention Strategies for Students with Disabilities
– References
CHAPTER 9: Competency 8: Subject Matter
– Definition of Competency
– Reading Strategies
– Reference Materials and Technology
– Multidisciplinary Studies
– References
CHAPTER 10: Competency 9: Learning Environments
– Definition of Competency
– Physical Environment
– Social and Emotional Climate
– Academic Learning Time
– Student Behavior
– Cognitive Development and Moral Decision Making
– Learning Styles and Personality Types
– Standards for Classroom Behavior
– Rules and the Student’s Role in Decision Making
– Rules and School Safety Issues
– “With it”-ness in the Classroom
– Procedures for Learning Success
– Organizing Activities
– Outcome-Oriented Learning
– References
CHAPTER 11: Competency 10: Planning
– Definition of Competency
– Goals
– Identifying Student Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes
– Constructing or Adapting Short-Range Objectives
– Organizing and Sequencing Short-Range Objectives
– Choosing Educational Materials
– Educational Resources
– Visual Materials
– Human Resources
– Planning Processes
– Teaching Methods
– Teaching Styles
– Directions
– Objectives
– Performance Standards
– Supplies
– Classroom Assessment
– Practice to Promote Retention and Learning
– Varying Practice Activities
– Reinforce Retention of Specific Information
– Provide a Variety of Activities to Promote Retention
– Assist Students During Seatwork
– Practice Activities Promote Long-Term Retention
– Reviewing Material
– Recapping Significant Points
– Thesis, Antithesis, and Synthesis
– Recapping Discussion and Reviewing Subject Matter
– End of the Lesson Recap
– Journal Writing
– Cooperative Learning
– Weekly and Monthly Reviews
– References
CHAPTER 12: Competency 11: The Role of the Teacher
– Definition of Competency
– The Teacher’s Role in Classroom Management
– Classroom Behavior
– Behavior Patterns
– Recognizing Substance Abuse
– Behaviors that Indicate a Tendency Toward Substance Abuse
– Physical and Behavioral Characteristics of Students Under the Influence of Drugs
– The Use of Referrals
– Teaching about the Dangers of Substance Abuse
– Recognizing Abuse and Neglect
– Symptoms of Abuse
– Visible Signs of Abuse
– How to Report Suspicions of Abuse
– Summary
– References
CHAPTER 13: Competency 12: Technology
– Definition of Competency
– Educational Technology in the Primary Classroom
– Educational Technology in the Secondary Classroom
– Copyright Laws for Computer Programs
– References
CHAPTER 14: Competency 13: Foundations of Education
– Definition of Competency
– A Brief History of the Foundations of American Education
– References
CHAPTER 15: Competency 14: ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages)
– Definition of Competency
– English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)
– Important Definitions of ESOL Terms
– Limited English Proficiency Codes
– Identification of Potential LEP Students
– ESOL Program Models in Florida Schools
– Considerations and Teaching Strategies for ESOL Students
– Teaching Strategies and Principles for ESOL Students
– Principles of Second-Language Acquisition
– Quadrants of Language and Learning
– Assessment
– References
Practice Test 1
– Multiple-Choice Questions
– Answer Key
– Detailed Explanations of Answers
Practice Test 2
– Multiple-Choice Questions
– Answer Key
– Detailed Explanations of Answers
– Practice Test Answer Sheets
Appendix: Florida School Districts

CHAPTER 1: Passing the FTCE

About this Book

This book provides you with an accurate and complete representation of the Florida Teacher Certification Examination (FTCE) Professional Education Test. Inside you will find topical reviews designed to equip you with the information and strategies needed to pass the exam. REA also gives you two full-length practice tests, which are based on the most recently administered FTCE and contain every type of question that you can expect to encounter on test day. As with the actual test, each of ours takes two and one-half hours to complete. Following each practice test, you will find an answer key with detailed explanations designed to help you better grasp the test material.

About the Test

Who takes the test and what is it used for?
The FTCE is taken by individuals seeking initial teacher certification in Florida. Educators must pass the Professional Education Test as one of the requirements for their first five-year Florida Professional Certificate. You are eligible to take the test if you meet any one of these criteria:
– Enrolled in a college or university teacher-preparation program
– Teaching with provisional certification
– Making a teaching career change to public school teaching

If you do not do well on the FTCE, don’t panic! The test can be taken again, so you can work on improving your score in preparation for your next FTCE. A score on the FTCE that does not match your expectations does not mean you should change your plans about teaching.

Who administers the test?
The FTCE is developed and administered by the Florida Department of Education. A test development process was designed and implemented to ensure that the content and difficulty level of the test are appropriate.

When should the FTCE be taken?
The test should be taken just before or right after graduation for those seeking certification right out of school. While the FTCE is required to teach in Florida, you may be issued a two-year temporary certificate while completing your teaching requirements and working toward passing the FTCE itself.

The FTCE is usually administered four times a year in several locations throughout Florida. The usual testing day is Saturday but the test may be taken on an alternate day if a conflict, such as a religious obligation, exists. Special accommodations can also be made for applicants who are visually impaired, hearing impaired, physically disabled, or specific learning disabled.
To receive information on upcoming administrations of the FTCE, consult the FTCE Registration Bulletin, which can be obtained by contacting:

FTCE Inquiries
Florida Department of Education
325 West Gaines Street, Suite 414
Tallahassee, FL 32399-0400
Phone: (850) 488-8198 or (813) 974-2400

The FTCE Registration Bulletin also includes information regarding test retakes and score reports.

Is there a registration fee?
To take the FTCE, you must pay a registration fee. You may pay by personal check, money order, cashier’s check, or Visa or MasterCard. Cash is not accepted.

How to Use this Book

What do I study first?
Read over the reviews and the suggestions for test-taking. Studying the reviews thoroughly will reinforce the basic skills you will need to do well on the exam. Make sure to take the practice tests to become familiar with the format and procedures involved with taking the actual FTCE.

To best utilize your study time, follow our FTCE Independent Study Schedule located at the end of this chapter. The schedule is based on a seven-week program, but can be condensed to four weeks if necessary.

When should I start studying?
It is never too early to start studying for the FTCE. The earlier you begin, the more time you will have to sharpen your skills. Do not procrastinate! Cramming is not an effective way to study, since it does not allow you the time needed to learn the test material.

Format of the FTCE

The Professional Education Test features 120 questions designed to assess your knowledge of the information described in the competencies included in our review sections.
The test covers the 14 teaching competencies identified by the Florida Department of Education as foundational to effective teaching. Mastery of the content included in each of the competencies is gauged by one or more items on the examination. Individual test items require a variety of different thinking levels, ranging from simple recall to evaluation and problem solving.

The competencies are broad statements written in a way that reflect the information an entry-level educator needs in order to be a truly effective teacher. Within the review section, each competency is broken down into the competency statement and a description of what the competency covers. The competencies will not be discussed in the actual FTCE test.

All the questions on the FTCE are in multiple-choice format. Each question will have four options, lettered A through D, from which to choose. You should have plenty of time in which to complete the FTCE, but be aware of the amount of time you are spending on each question so that you allow yourself time to complete the test. Although speed is not very important, a steady pace should be maintained when answering the questions. Using the practice tests will help you prepare for this task.

Computer-Based Testing
A computer-based test is also available. To register, visit and click on “Computer-Based Testing.” If you decide to take the exam on the computer, you will receive notice of Pass/Fail immediately after completing the exam. It can be scheduled at a time that is convenient for you.

About the Review Sections
The reviews in this book are designed to help you sharpen the basic skills needed to approach the FTCE, as well as provide strategies for attacking the questions.

Each teaching competency is examined in a separate chapter. All 14 competencies are extensively discussed to sharpen your understanding of what the FTCE covers.

Your schooling has taught you most of what you need to answer the questions on the test. The education classes you took should have provided you with the know-how to make important decisions about situations you will face as a teacher. Our review is designed to help you fit the information you have acquired into specific competency components. Reviewing your class notes and textbooks together with our competency reviews will give you an excellent springboard for passing the FTCE.

Scoring the FTCE

How do I score my practice test?
There are a total of 120 questions on the FTCE Professional Education Test. A score of 200 or higher, which is equivalent to 56% correct, is needed to pass. In other words, you need to answer approximately 67 questions correctly to achieve a passing score.

If you do not achieve a passing score, review the detailed explanations for the questions you answered incorrectly. Note which types of questions you answered wrong, and re-examine the corresponding review. After further review, you may want to retake the practice tests.

When will I receive my score report and what will it look like?
Approximately one month after you take the test, your score report will be mailed to you. You will receive two original score reports and are responsible for sending one to the Bureau of Teacher Certification. A copy of your score report is provided to one Florida college or university and one Florida school district. You should have requested this information on your registration application.

When you receive your score report and have passed with a 200 or higher, only the word PASS will be reported. If you do not pass, you will receive a numeric score and will have to retake the test.

Studying for the FTCE

It is very important for you to choose the time and place for studying that works best for you. Some individuals may set aside a certain number of hours every morning to study, while others may choose to study at night before going to sleep. Other people may study during the day, while waiting on line, or even while eating lunch. Only you can determine when and where your study time will be most effective. Be consistent and use your time wisely. Work out a study routine and stick to it.

When you take the practice tests, simulate the conditions of the actual test as closely as possible. Turn your television and radio off, and sit down at a quiet table free from distraction.
As you complete each practice test, score your test and thoroughly review the explanations to the questions you answered incorrectly; however, do not review too much at any one time. Concentrate on one problem area at a time by reviewing the question and explanation, and by studying our review until you are confident that you have mastered the material.

Keep track of your scores. By doing so, you will be able to gauge your progress and discover general weaknesses in particular sections. Give extra attention to the reviews that cover your areas of difficulty, as this will build your skills in those areas.

Test-Taking Tips

Although you may not be familiar with tests like the FTCE, this book will help acquaint you with this type of exam and help alleviate your test-taking anxieties. Listed below are ways to help you become accustomed to the FTCE, some of which may be applied to other tests as well.

Become comfortable with the format of the FTCE. When you are practicing, simulate the conditions under which you will be taking the actual test. Stay calm and pace yourself. After simulating the test only once, you will boost your chances of doing well, and you will be able to sit down for the actual FTCE with much more confidence.

Read all of the possible answers. Just because you think you have found the correct response, do not automatically assume that it is the best answer. Read through each choice to be sure that you are not making a mistake by jumping to conclusions.

Use the process of elimination. Go through each answer to a question and eliminate as many of the answer choices as possible. By eliminating two answer choices, you have given yourself a better chance of getting the item correct since there will only be two choices left from which to make your guess. Do not leave an answer blank; it is better to guess than to not answer a question on the FTCE test.

Work quickly and steadily. You will have two and one-half hours to complete the test, so work quickly and steadily to avoid focusing on any one problem too long. Taking the practice tests in this book will help you learn to budget your precious time.

Learn the directions and format of the test. Familiarizing yourself with the directions and format of the test will not only save time, but will also help you avoid anxiety (and the mistakes caused by getting anxious).

Be sure that the answer circle you are marking corresponds to the number of the question in the test booklet. Since the test is multiple-choice, it is graded by machine, and marking one wrong answer can throw off your answer key and your score. Be extremely careful.

The Day of the Test

Before the Test
On the day of the test, make sure to dress comfortably, so that you are not distracted by being too hot or too cold while taking the test. Plan to arrive at the test center early. This will allow you to collect your thoughts and relax before the test, and will also spare you the anguish that comes with being late.

You should check your FTCE Registration Bulletin to find out what time to arrive at the testing center.

Before you leave for the test center, make sure that you have your admission ticket and two forms of identification, one of which must contain a recent photograph, your name, and signature (i.e., driver’s license). You will not be admitted to the test center if you do not have proper identification.

You must bring several sharpened No. 2 pencils with erasers, as none will be provided at the test center.

If you would like, you may wear a watch to the test center. However, you may not wear one that makes noise, because it may disturb the other test takers. Dictionaries, textbooks, notebooks, calculators, briefcases, or packages will not be permitted. Drinking, smoking, and eating are prohibited.

During the Test
The FTCE is given in one sitting with no breaks. Procedures will be followed to maintain test security. Once you enter the test center, follow all of the rules and instructions given by the test supervisor. If you do not, you risk being dismissed from the test and having your scores cancelled.

When all of the materials have been distributed, the test instructor will give you directions for filling out your answer sheet. Fill out this sheet carefully since this information will be printed on your score report.

Once the test begins, mark only one answer per question, completely erase unwanted answers and marks, and fill in answers darkly and neatly.

After the Test
When you finish your test, hand in your materials and you will be dismissed. Then, go home and relax – you deserve it!

Teacher Development in Higher Education

Concerns about the quality of teaching and learning in higher education have given rise to teacher development programs and centers around the world. This book investigates the challenges and complexities of creating instructional development programs for present and future academics. Using case studies from a variety of countries including Estonia, Singapore, the United States and the United Kingdom, it examines issues that are important for higher education researchers as well as higher education managers.

The book includes international responses to the need to improve teaching in higher education. It demonstrates many different ways success may be understood, and investigates what factors may influence the results of instructional development. Contributors use these factors to explain program success through theoretical frameworks. This book also provides input for higher-education managers by pointing out how the local context and both institutional and national policy-making may help or hinder the effective preparation of professors for their teaching responsibilities.

Developing a Pedagogy of Teacher Education

A pedagogy of teacher education must go well beyond the simple delivery of information about teaching. This book describes and explores the complex nature of teaching and of learning about teaching, illustrating how important teacher educators’ professional knowledge is and how that knowledge must influence teacher training practices.

The book is divided into two sections. The first considers the crucial distinction between teaching student-teachers and teaching them about teaching, allowing practice to push beyond the technical-rational, or tips-and-tricks approach, to teaching about teaching in a way that brings in the appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills of teaching itself. Section two highlights the dual nature of student teachers’ learning, arguing that they need to concentrate not only on learning what is being taught but also on the way in which that teaching is conducted.


Assessment, Testing, and Evaluation in Teacher Education

With the national reform and research agendas occurring in teacher education, one of the most important areas needing theoretical analysis and empirical research is assessment and evaluation. New initiatives in the education of teachers and new roles in professional practice demand new means to assess both learning and performance. In recognition of this demand, this book is designed to examine how students can best be selected for and evaluated while in teacher education programs. The book reviews and synthesizes the existing knowledge in teacher education assessment, as well as presents new inquiry to extend and deepen this knowledge.

Developing Teacher Leaders

‘This book contributes to the literature on teacher leadership with a particular focus on schoolwide excellence in teaching, learning, and assessment. The exercises are filled with solid and practical but generative ideas.’Richard Ackerman, ProfessorThe University of MaineRediscover the importance of teacher leadership in revitalizing schools!Teacher leadership is a transformative process that can drive school and community reform. This revised edition of the groundbreaking bestseller builds on current research to help teachers and administrators work together to foster, develop, and support teacher leadership. Principals and staff developers will learn how collaborating with teacher leaders can result in significantly improved school outcomes. With the Teachers as Leaders Framework, teachers can become leaders who facilitate communities of learning, strive for pedagogical excellence, confront barriers in the school’s culture and structures, and nurture a culture of success. Featured in the second edition are:Five new school case studies with insights about the complexity of teacher leadershipExpanded discussion of the capacity-building process for teacher leaders and principalsAn outline of a school development program based on teacher leadership and parallel leadership With exercises for systematically developing teacher leaders, the second edition of this invaluable guide is for every educator who believes in teacher leadership as a crucial step toward making schools a source of instruction and inspiration.